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Edward Vorobyov
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Shusaku Endo Silence PDF: How to Read and Appreciate the Classic Novel and Its Film Adaptation



- Summary: What is the plot and the main themes of Silence? - Analysis: How does Endo portray the conflict between Christianity and Japan? - Comparison: How does the film adaptation by Martin Scorsese differ from the novel? - Conclusion: What is the message and the impact of Silence? H2: Introduction - Background information on Shusaku Endo and his novel Silence - Thesis statement: Silence is a powerful and provocative novel that explores the challenges of faith, culture, and identity in 17th century Japan. H2: Summary - Overview of the historical context and the setting of Silence - Synopsis of the main characters and their journeys - Explanation of the key events and conflicts in Silence H2: Analysis - Discussion of Endo's use of symbolism, imagery, and language in Silence - Examination of Endo's portrayal of Christianity and Japan as complex and contradictory forces - Evaluation of Endo's exploration of the themes of silence, suffering, betrayal, and grace in Silence H2: Comparison - Description of Martin Scorsese's film adaptation of Silence and its reception - Comparison of the similarities and differences between the novel and the film in terms of plot, characters, style, and tone - Assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of both versions of Silence H2: Conclusion - Restatement of the thesis statement and the main points of the article - Implication of Silence for contemporary readers and viewers - Recommendation for further reading or watching on Silence Table 2: Article with HTML formatting Shusaku Endo Silence Pdf: A Review of the Classic Novel and Its Film Adaptation




Silence is a novel by Shusaku Endo, a Japanese Catholic writer who was born in 1923 and died in 1996. It was first published in Japan in 1966 and translated into English in 1969. It is widely regarded as one of Endo's masterpieces and one of the most influential works of modern Japanese literature. It has also been adapted into a film by Martin Scorsese, a renowned American director who had been fascinated by the novel for decades. In this article, we will review both the novel and the film version of Silence, focusing on their plot, themes, style, and message.




Shusaku Endo Silence PdfShusaku Endo Silence Pdf



Introduction




Silence is based on historical events that took place in Japan in the 17th century, when Christianity was banned and persecuted by the feudal government. The novel follows the journey of two Portuguese Jesuit priests, Sebastiao Rodrigues and Francisco Garrpe, who travel to Japan to find their mentor, Cristovao Ferreira, who has reportedly apostatized (renounced his faith) under torture. Along the way, they encounter various Japanese Christians who are hiding their faith or facing martyrdom for it. They also face their own doubts, fears, and temptations as they witness the brutal oppression of their religion.


The novel is a powerful and provocative exploration of the challenges of faith, culture, and identity in a hostile environment. It raises profound questions about God's presence or absence in human suffering, about the meaning and cost of loyalty and betrayal, about the role and responsibility of missionaries and converts, and about the possibility and limits of cross-cultural understanding. It also offers a nuanced and sympathetic portrayal of both Christianity and Japan as complex and contradictory forces that shape human lives.


Summary




The novel begins with a prologue that introduces Ferreira's apostasy as a shocking news for his fellow Jesuits in Macao. It also sets up Rodrigues as his former student who admires him greatly and refuses to believe his betrayal. Rodrigues decides to go to Japan with Garrpe to find out the truth about Ferreira and to support the underground Christians there.


The main part of the novel consists of six chapters that chronicle Rodrigues's experiences in Japan. In the first chapter, he and Garrpe arrive in a small island near Nagasaki, where they are welcomed by a group of hidden Christians led by a man named Kichijiro. Kichijiro is a weak and cowardly character who has apostatized several times and acts as a guide and a spy for the priests. He also represents Rodrigues's Judas, the biblical figure who betrayed Jesus.


In the second chapter, Rodrigues and Garrpe move to another village where they meet more Christians who are eager to receive their sacraments and teachings. They also learn more about the persecution and torture methods used by the Japanese authorities, such as the pit, the fumie, and the sea. The pit is a hole where prisoners are hung upside down and slowly bled to death. The fumie is an image of Christ or Mary that the suspects are forced to trample on to prove their renunciation of Christianity. The sea is a place where the Christians are drowned or tied to stakes at low tide and left to die.


In the third chapter, Rodrigues and Garrpe are separated by a raid that captures many of their followers. Rodrigues escapes with Kichijiro and hides in the mountains, where he suffers from hunger, cold, and loneliness. He also struggles with his faith, as he questions God's silence in the face of so much injustice and cruelty. He prays for a sign or a voice from God, but he only hears his own thoughts and doubts.


In the fourth chapter, Rodrigues is betrayed by Kichijiro and captured by the Japanese officials. He is taken to Nagasaki, where he meets Inoue, the governor of the region and the main antagonist of the novel. Inoue is a cunning and ruthless man who has devised various ways to eradicate Christianity from Japan. He is also a former Buddhist monk who has a deep knowledge of both religions and cultures. He tries to persuade Rodrigues to apostatize by appealing to his reason, compassion, and pride. He also shows him Ferreira, who has indeed become an apostate and has adopted a Japanese name and lifestyle.


In the fifth chapter, Rodrigues is transferred to a prison where he witnesses the torture of several Christians who are waiting for him to trample on the fumie and save them. He is also visited by Ferreira, who explains his reasons for apostatizing and urges him to do the same. Ferreira claims that Christianity is incompatible with Japan, that God does not care about human suffering, and that apostasy is an act of love and mercy for the people.


In the final chapter, Rodrigues faces his ultimate dilemma: to trample or not to trample on the fumie. He hears the moans of the tortured Christians outside his cell, as well as the voice of Christ inside his head. The voice tells him to trample, saying that it is his will and that he has been silent because he has suffered with him. Rodrigues steps on the fumie, ending his ordeal but also his identity as a priest. He becomes an apostate like Ferreira, living under a Japanese name and working for the government. He also loses contact with Garrpe, who dies as a martyr in the sea.


The novel ends with an appendix that consists of historical documents related to Rodrigues's life and death in Japan. They reveal that he died in 1640, that he never renounced his apostasy, that he married a Japanese woman, and that he continued to perform some Christian rites in secret. They also suggest that he may have regretted his decision or hoped for forgiveness.


Analysis




Silence is a rich and complex novel that employs various literary devices to convey its message. Some of these devices are:



  • Symbolism: Endo uses various symbols to represent different aspects of his characters and themes. For example, the fumie symbolizes both Christ and Japan, as it is an image of Christ made by Japanese artists. It also symbolizes both faith and apostasy, as it is an object of reverence or contempt depending on one's choice. Another example is the sea, which symbolizes both life and death, as it is a source of food and trade but also a site of martyrdom and suffering.



Table 2: Article with HTML formatting (continued) Analysis (continued)




Imagery (continued): He also describes the fumie as "a bronze plaque depicting Christ" (Endo 67) or "a face that seemed to be made of mud" (Endo 191). He also uses imagery to contrast the beauty and the horror of Japan, such as the cherry blossoms and the blood, the mountains and the pits, the sun and the silence.


  • Language: Endo uses various forms of language to convey different tones and perspectives in his novel. For example, he uses Portuguese words and phrases to show the foreignness and the authenticity of the priests and their faith. He also uses Japanese words and expressions to show the culture and the mentality of the Japanese characters and their religion. He also uses biblical quotations and references to show the parallels and the differences between Christianity and Japan. For example, he compares Rodrigues to Christ, Judas, Peter, and Job at different points in his novel.



Endo's main purpose in using these devices is to portray Christianity and Japan as complex and contradictory forces that shape human lives. He does not present a simple or clear-cut answer to the questions he raises, but rather invites the reader to reflect on them from multiple angles. He shows that Christianity is not a monolithic or universal religion, but rather a diverse and adaptable one that can take different forms and meanings in different contexts. He also shows that Japan is not a homogeneous or hostile nation, but rather a multifaceted and dynamic one that can offer both challenges and opportunities for cross-cultural dialogue. He also shows that faith is not a static or absolute concept, but rather a dynamic and personal one that can change and evolve in response to circumstances.


Comparison




Silence has been adapted into a film by Martin Scorsese, a renowned American director who had been fascinated by the novel for decades. The film was released in 2016, starring Andrew Garfield as Rodrigues, Adam Driver as Garrpe, Liam Neeson as Ferreira, Tadanobu Asano as Inoue, and Yosuke Kubozuka as Kichijiro. The film received critical acclaim and several awards nominations, but also faced some controversies and criticisms.


The film is faithful to the novel in many aspects, such as the plot, the characters, the themes, and the tone. It follows the novel's structure closely, with some minor changes or omissions for cinematic purposes. It also preserves the novel's historical accuracy and cultural sensitivity, with careful attention to details such as costumes, settings, music, and language. It also captures the novel's emotional intensity and spiritual depth, with powerful performances by the actors and stunning cinematography by Rodrigo Prieto.


However, there are also some differences between the novel and the film that may affect the interpretation and reception of Silence. Some of these differences are:



  • Perspective: The novel is narrated mostly from Rodrigues's point of view, with occasional shifts to other characters or documents. The film is more omniscient and objective, showing scenes that Rodrigues does not witness or know about. For example, the film shows Garrpe's death in detail, while the novel only mentions it briefly. The film also shows more scenes of Inoue's strategy and Ferreira's life after apostasy. These changes may make the film more comprehensive and balanced, but also less intimate and subjective.



  • Focus: The novel focuses more on Rodrigues's inner struggle and dialogue with God, while the film focuses more on his outer actions and interactions with others. For example, the novel devotes more space to Rodrigues's thoughts and prayers during his captivity and torture, while the film shows more of his conversations with Inoue and Ferreira. The novel also emphasizes more Rodrigues's hearing of Christ's voice in his head, while the film makes it more ambiguous whether it is real or imagined. These changes may make the film more dramatic and realistic, but also less psychological and mystical.



Table 2: Article with HTML formatting (continued) Comparison (continued)




Ending (continued): However, the film adds a visual detail that is not in the novel: a small cross hidden in Rodrigues's hand as he is cremated. This detail may suggest that Rodrigues never lost his faith completely, or that he found a way to reconcile his apostasy with his belief. It may also contrast with the novel's more ambiguous and open-ended conclusion.


Conclusion




Silence is a powerful and provocative novel that explores the challenges of faith, culture, and identity in 17th century Japan. It raises profound questions about God's presence or absence in human suffering, about the meaning and cost of loyalty and betrayal, about the role and responsibility of missionaries and converts, and about the possibility and limits of cross-cultural understanding. It also offers a nuanced and sympathetic portrayal of both Christianity and Japan as complex and contradictory forces that shape human lives.


The novel has been adapted into a film by Martin Scorsese, a renowned American director who had been fascinated by the novel for decades. The film is faithful to the novel in many aspects, such as the plot, the characters, the themes, and the tone. It also preserves the novel's historical accuracy and cultural sensitivity, with careful attention to details such as costumes, settings, music, and language. It also captures the novel's emotional intensity and spiritual depth, with powerful performances by the actors and stunning cinematography by Rodrigo Prieto.


However, there are also some differences between the novel and the film that may affect the interpretation and reception of Silence. Some of these differences are related to perspective, focus, and ending. These changes may make the film more comprehensive and balanced, but also less intimate and subjective. They may also make the film more dramatic and realistic, but also less psychological and mystical. They may also make the film more conclusive and hopeful, but also less ambiguous and open-ended.


Silence is a novel and a film that can inspire and challenge readers and viewers of different backgrounds and beliefs. It can also invite them to reflect on their own faith, culture, and identity in relation to others. It can also encourage them to seek dialogue and understanding across differences and difficulties. Silence is a novel and a film that can speak to us in different ways, depending on how we listen.


FAQs





Q: Where can I find Shusaku Endo Silence Pdf?


  • A: You can find Shusaku Endo Silence Pdf online at various websites that offer free or paid downloads of ebooks. For example, you can find it at https://archive.org/details/silence00endo or https://christspieces.files.wordpress.com/2017/01/endo2016silence6_ch07_129-164.pdf. You can also buy a physical copy of the book at bookstores or online retailers.



Q: Who is Shusaku Endo?


  • A: Shusaku Endo was a Japanese Catholic writer who was born in 1923 and died in 1996. He wrote novels, short stories, essays, and biographies that often dealt with themes such as faith, culture, history, and identity. He was influenced by both Japanese and Western literature, especially by writers such as Dostoyevsky, Graham Greene, Francois Mauriac, and Georges Bernanos. He was also interested in Christianity in Japan and its history of persecution and adaptation. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature several times.



Q: What is silence in Silence?


  • A: Silence is a key theme and symbol in Silence. It can refer to different things depending on the context and the perspective of the characters. For example, it can refer to God's silence in response to human prayers or cries for help. It can also refer to human silence in terms of hiding or denying one's faith or identity. It can also refer to Japan's silence as a country that has isolated itself from foreign influences or contacts. It can also refer to silence as a form of communication or expression that transcends words or sounds.



Q: Is Silence based on a true story?


  • A: Silence is based on historical events that took place in Japan in the 17th century, when Christianity was banned and persecuted by the feudal government. The novel follows the journey of two Portuguese Jesuit priests who travel to Japan to find their mentor who has reportedly apostatized under torture. The novel is inspired by the real-life story of Cristovao Ferreira, a Jesuit missionary who apostatized in 1633 and lived in Japan until his death in 1650. The novel also incorporates other historical figures and facts, such as Inoue Masashige, the governor of Nagasaki and the main persecutor of Christians, and the fumie, the image of Christ or Mary that the suspects were forced to trample on to prove their renunciation of Christianity.



Q: What is the message of Silence?


  • A: Silence does not have a single or clear-cut message, but rather invites the reader or the viewer to reflect on various questions and issues related to faith, culture, and identity. Some of these questions and issues are: How does one maintain or lose one's faith in a hostile environment? How does one reconcile or clash with one's culture and identity in a different context? How does one understand or misunderstand God's will and presence in human suffering? How does one choose between loyalty and betrayal, between martyrdom and apostasy, between compassion and pride? How does one communicate or dialogue with others across differences and difficulties?



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